Well, it didn’t take long before Dehlin had to start taking blatantly false claims out of at least one of his “truth claims” essays. Compare this screenshot taken when the “Archaeology and the Book of Mormon” essay first went up:
To this one, taken at the time of my writing this post:
Notice that the section on “fiery flying serpents,” which originally appeared before “dogs,” has been removed. I don’t know exactly why or when this happened, but this was smart decision on the part of someone over at Mormon Stories, since Nephi’s mention of fiery flying serpents is demonstrably not a problem for the Book of Mormon, and least of all an archaeological problem. In fact, it’s supported by archaeological evidence.
For starters, look at the scripture references there—one is to the Book of Mormon (1 Nephi 17:41), but the other two are from Isaiah, and they read (in the KJV):
Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the rod of him that smote thee is broken: for out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a cockatrice, and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent.Isaiah 14:29
The burden of the beasts of the south: into the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the young and old lion, the viper and fiery flying serpent, they will carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the bunches of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.Isaiah 30:6
Don’t you think that, right there, should have tipped off Dehlin or the author of the essays that this really isn’t a problem for the Book of Mormon? That it’s perfectly normal for an ancient Israelite to believe in fiery flying serpents?
If the author were familiar with the archaeology of Israel, they might have known that winged/flying snakes, like the one on this seal from the 7th century BC (i.e., around Nephi’s time), are well known in ancient Israel’s iconography:
This image was originally published in the Biblical Archaeology Review, with the caption:
Saraf (sometimes spelled saraph) is also the same Hebrew word which appears in Numbers 21:6, 8, in the same story Nephi is talking about in 1 Nephi 17:41. It also shows up, untranslated, in Isaiah 6 as the plural seraphim, where they are portrayed as fiery, flying creatures with six-wings. Biblical scholar Marvin A. Sweeny defines seraphim as “fiery ones” and explains:
[Seraphim are] fiery beings of supernatural origin. … Seraphim have six wings. … A flying seraph (Heb. saraph; NRSV: “serpent”) appears in Isaiah 14:29 and 30:6 together with “adders” and “vipers.” The same Hebrew word (saraph) is used to describe the “fiery serpents” (NRSV: “poisonous serpents”) that afflicted Israel in the wilderness (Num. 21:6–9; Deut. 8:15). Thus, seraphim may have had a serpentine form and served, not only as guardians of the divine throne, but also as emissaries of divine judgement.2
And this isn’t just an Israelite thing. Egyptians also had winged snake iconography, and flying serpents are mentioned in diverse historical sources, such as Esarhaddon’s annals and Herodotus’s Histories.
In contrast to the rather flippant response to these as the subject of mere “fairy tale” in Dehlin’s essay (as it originally appeared), these references to flying serpents are taken quite seriously by scholars of the ancient Near East. To the point that they’ve tried to identify which species of snake is likely being referred to by these ancient authors.3
Even if merely “fairy tale,” however, the biblical and archaeological evidence certainly demonstrates that it’s the kind of thing an ancient Israelite would believe in. And it’s certainly interesting that although the KJV only has “fiery serpents” in Numbers 21, the iconography clearly shows that saraphs were depicted with wings, and so Nephi’s “fiery flying serpents” is very likely how an ancient Israelite would have understood the reference to saraphs in Numbers 21.
Now, as I already mentioned, Mormon Stories has already removed the section on “Fiery Flying Serpents,” for reasons I am not really aware of. But the very fact that the author thought this was a problem for the Book of Mormon in the first place tells us they don’t know much about ancient Israel and its material culture (as documented through archaeology).
But shouldn’t that kind of be a prerequisite to writing about archaeology and the Book of Mormon?
There’s much more that Dehlin should consider having removed from this essay. Take, for example, the claim that “there is absolutely no mention of dogs” in the Book of Mormon, which can be seen in both screenshots above and thus is still in the essay (as of this writing).
This is demonstrably false:
Yea, wo be unto this generation! And the Lord said unto me: Stretch forth thy hand and prophesy, saying: Thus saith the Lord, it shall come to pass that this generation, because of their iniquities, shall be brought into bondage, and shall be smitten on the cheek; yea, and shall be driven by men, and shall be slain; and the vultures of the air, and the dogs, yea, and the wild beasts, shall devour their flesh.Mosiah 12:2
But behold, in one day it was left desolate; and the carcasses were mangled by dogs and wild beasts of the wilderness.Alma 16:10
And behold, instead of gathering you, except ye will repent, behold, he shall scatter you forth that ye shall become meat for dogs and wild beasts.Helaman 7:19
And thus six years had not passed away since the more part of the people had turned from their righteousness, like the dog to his vomit, or like the sow to her wallowing in the mire.3 Nephi 7:8
Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.3 Nephi 14:6
I’d recommend that Dehlin have the section on dogs deleted as well. In fact, if Dehlin really wishes for these essays to be “accurate and robust,” as he claims, I would recommend he take the whole thing down and have it more carefully vetted, because it’s abundantly clear that the author’s understanding of both the relevant archaeology and the Book of Mormon text itself is deficient.
- Shlomit Weksler-Bdolah, Alexander Onn, Shua Kisilevitz, and Brigitte Ouahnouna, “Layers of Ancient Jerusalem,” Biblical Archaeology Review 38, no. 1 (January/February 2012): 40.
Marvin A. Sweeney, “Seraphim,” in HarperCollins Bible Dictionary, rev. ed., ed. Mark Allan Powell (New York, NY: HarperOne, 2011), 935–936.
See, e.g., Karen Radner, “The Winged Snakes of Arabia and the Fossil Site of Makhtesh Ramon in the Negev,” in Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 97 (2007): 353–365.